How to Mount and Unmount Filesystem in Linux

In daily server maintenance, we may need to add another disks to our server. This tutorial will walk you through how to mount and unmount filesystem in Linux.

The directories where filesystems are mounted on are called mount points, you can access files in mount points by entering to that directory.

Mount Filesystem

If you want to mount disk /dev/sdb on /backup directory, just run the following command:

# mount /dev/sdb /backup

Mount command automatically detects the file system on disk. But in some cases, you need specify the file system type manually.

# mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb /backup

If you want to mount filesystems on system boot, edit /etc/fstab and append the following line at the end of file, change /dev/sdb with your own disk.

/dev/sdb /backup ext4 defaults 0 0

Now, run mount -a to mount all disks defined in /etc/fstab file.

Unmount Filesystem

You can use umount command to unmount filesystems, just run umount command with disk name or mount point name to unmount currently mounted disk.

# umount /backup
# umount /dev/sdb

Free Control Panel

Cloud hosting is beating shared hosting in price and performance, more and more users choose VPS instead of shared hosting. Unlike shared hosting, unmanaged VPS is a little difficult to use, especially we are not system administrators, and we don’t know much about ssh commands. In this case we could choose managed VPS or buy a control panel, like CPanel, Plesk or DirectAdmin. However, the license is pretty expensive, the cost of a license may 10 times of the cost of a VPS monthly.

If we could done the same thing with free control panel, why not? Here is a list of free VPS control panels and brief introduction. Each control panel has its own pros and cons, but all of them offer basic features for websites management and server environment configuration. Check all the demos and choose the one meets your demands most.


webmin control panel

Webmin, which is familiar to system administrators, is designed to manage Linux systems with web browsers instead of commands, with the integration of Vitrualmin, which is a webmin module designed to manage virtual hosts, webmin becomes a perfect free control panel. It’s a features rich control panel and you can do almost everything you need. Built-in features including file manager, let’s encrypt integration, firewall, backup and restore and so on.

Webmin is compatible with Unix-like systems, such as Cent OS, Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Solaris and so on.


vesta control panel

Vesta is an elegant control panel which was written in Bash, web interface is open source php and javascript interface based on Vesta open API. Built-in features including let’s encrypt, firewall, Cron jobs, Graphic, multiple language.

Vesta is compatible with Cent OS 5,6,7, Debian 6,7,8, and Ubuntu 12.04-15.10.

Attention: Vesta do not offer file manager, you may purchase a commercial plugin or manage files through FTP or SSH.


ispconfig control panel

ISPConfig 3 is an open source hosting control panel for Linux which is capable of managing multiple servers from one control panel. Built-in features including file manager, firewall, cron jobs, multiple language support and so on.

ISPConfig is compatible with Debian 5 – 8, Ubuntu 8.10 – 16.04, CentOS 5.2 – 7, Fedora 10 and 12 – 15, OpenSuSE 11.1 – 12.3.

Manual Installation of Plesk for Linux

We usually use one-click-installer to install Plesk automatically, it’s straightforward and what you need to do is waiting. However, you also can install Plesk manually and get more options during the installation.

Like one-click-installer, you need to download the installer first and then add execution permission to it.

chmod +x plesk-installer

Option 1: Install pervious version of Plesk

./plesk-installer --all-versions

By default, one-click-installer installs the latest stable version for you, you can add –all-versions to install previous versions or testing versions manually. Based on the Operating System, Plesk will show you a list of available versions for you.

plesk all versions

Options 2: Install Plesk from web interface

Before the installation, make sure that port 8447 is not blocked by firewall and you could access it.

./plesk-installer --web-interface

Run the command above and you will be prompted to open https://ip-address:8447/ in your browser. The web interface installation is now ready and sign in with “root” user and its password, all the operations can be done in browser.

If you want to install previous version of Plesk in web interface, just combine the two arguments.

./plesk-installer --all-versions --web-interface

Godaddy Acquired Sucuri

Godaddy, which is a leading company in domain registration and web hosting, announced the acquisition of Sucuri. Both Godaddy and Sucuri have published the announcements on their own blogs.

It’s really a good news for their customers. There are plenty of programs and web hosting companies, it’s only takes several minutes to set up a website. However, protecting our websites from cyber attacks is not easy even if we know basic knowledges and have done some security optimizations to our websites.

I can’t wait to see how will Godaddy integrate Sucuri’s services into existing products, and what benefits will this acquisition will bring to us.

How to Enable GeoIP Plugin for Awstats in Plesk

By default, Awstats doesn’t show countries visitors are visiting from, but there is a plugin called GeoIP could do it. In this tutorial, I will show you how to enable GeoIP plugin for Awstats in Plesk control panel. If you are not using Plesk, it’s OK, the steps are more or less the same, the only difference is you have to setup a cron job instead of adding a scheduled task. Scheduled tasks, which was a component of Plesk control panel, is a GUI tool for web masters to manage cron job easily and flexibly.


First, install required perl modules (Geo::IP), take CentOS for example.

yum install GeoIP GeoIP-data GeoIP-devel

Second, download GeoIP database, and store it in local directory (you can store in any directory as you want).

cd /var/www/vhosts/
gzip -d GeoLiteCity.dat.gz

Edit Awstats Configuration Files

The main configuration files are /etc/awstats/awstats.comf and /etc/awstats/awstats.model.conf, all the changes you made will only be effected to the new websites. If you have websites which had awstats enabled, you can find configuration files for existing websites in /usr/local/psa/etc/awstats/.

Enable GeoIP by uncommenting a line looks like LoadPlugin=”geoip GEOIP_STANDARD /pathto/GeoIP.dat” in the configuration file, place “/pathto/GeoIP.dat” with the your own path where you stored the GeoIP you downloaded in previous. The following line is what I configured in my awstats configuration file.

LoadPlugin="geoip GEOIP_STANDARD /var/www/vhosts/"

Update awstats and you can see the countries information your visitors are visiting from. By default, Awstats will be updated everyday, if you want to update Awstats in real-time, just add a scheduled task.

How to Change Awstats Update Frequency on Plesk Panel

Awstats is a powerful statistics tool and it is a built-in component on plesk panel, you can active awstats by choosing it at website settings. By default, plesk update awstats everyday, you have to wait for 24 hours before awstats generate the graphic results. In this tutorial, I will show you how to update awstats hourly in two steps.

Log onto the Plesk control panel and navigate to “Tools & Settings”–>”Scheduled Tasks”, add a task by clicking “Add Task” button.

Choose “Run a command” for Task Type option.

Fill in the “Command” blank with /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/statistics

The command above will update all websites, it may consumes a lot of server resources. You can assign a website in the command, please replace with your own domain.

/usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/statistics --calculate-one

Then set the frequency, description, notification, and make sure the “Active” option is selected on the top.

Here is a screenshot.

Now, awstats will be updated hourly.

There is a tutorial online suggesting move file ‘awstats’ in /etc/cron.daily/ to /etc/cron.hourly/, I’ve tried but it didn’t work. I asked Plesk Support on twitter and they suggest me to set up a cron job to implement this task.